The costs of replacing lever voting machines with electronic machines will be enormous. The immediate costs -- hardware, software, licenses - will rapidly deplete the City's HAVA funds. The associated costs, which continue from year to year -- training, printing paper ballots, preelection testing, auditing elections, storage, inventory management, new personnel, and new procedures -- have not yet been fully identified. Many, perhaps most, of them are not eligible for HAVA funds. Even excepting the unknown costs, it is clear that the cost of lever replacement will be a heavy burden borne by City taxpayers, not only in the first year, but also in each subsequent year.

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