To understand risks to our election systems and plan for the future, it is necessary to identify existing vulnerabilities in election infrastructure so we can properly assess where resources should be allocated and establish preventative measures and strategies. Only through understanding the terrain can the nation rise to the challenge of preventing voting machine malfunction and defending America's elections from adversarial attempts to undermine our election infrastructure. In August 2017, the Center for American Progress released a report entitled "9 Solutions for Securing America's Elections," laying out nine vulnerabilities in election infrastructure and solutions to help improve election security in time for the 2018 and 2020 elections.15 This report builds on that analysis to provide an overview of election security and preparedness in each state, looking specifically at state requirements and practices related to:



  1. Minimum cybersecurity standards for voter registration systems

  2. Voter-verified paper ballots

  3. Post-election audits that test election results

  4. Ballot accounting and reconciliation

  5. Return of voted paper absentee ballots

  6. Voting machine certification requirements

  7. Pre-election logic and accuracy testing


This report provides an overview of state compliance with baseline standards to protect their elections from hacking and machine malfunction. Some experts may contend that additional standards, beyond those mentioned here, should be required of states to improve election security. The chief purpose of this report

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